Hard-wheat Flours Available in Italy
Semola or grano duro are the Italian terms for hard wheat. In Italy, all flours are classified according to the amount of bran (the hard outer layer of the grain) in the flour, not according to its granularity or particle size.
There are 4 types of hard-wheat flour in Italy:
1️⃣ Semola: coarse, perfect for pasta-making
2️⃣ Semolato: coarse, semi-whole wheat
3️⃣ Semolato integrale: coarse, whole wheat
4️⃣ Farina di grano duro: fine, used for bread and baked goods
There is also another type of hard-wheat flour sold in supermarkets in Italy that does not fall into the categories mentioned above: semola rimacinata di grano duro. This is because it's just semola that undergoes another milling process (rimacinato means 're-milled'). What makes it different is its granularity: it's not as coarse as semola and not as fine as farina di grano duro. It also has a light yellow color compared to semola.
What to use for pasta. When it comes to making pasta, you want to use semola, also known internationally as semolina flour. It is coarse, golden, and rich in flavor. You can also use semola rimacinata for pasta-making. Never ever use farina di grano duro (the fine flour made from hard wheat) to make pasta!
Test and Explore Your Perfect Flour
What you need to do now is simply test and play around with the different flours available in your country, keeping in mind all of the information we have provided. So many different factors can influence the resulting doughs so you need to test, test, test!
Trial and error. This is the best way to find your perfect combination of ingredients. 🧑🔬